Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL)
The MCL connects the femur to the tibia and stabilises the inner side of the knee.
Injuries to the MCL are usually caused by a force pushing the knee inwards (valgus) or in combination with a twisting force. The ligament becomes stressed, overstretched, and damaged. Often, MCL tears occur alongside other knee injuries such as ACL tears. Pain around the inner aspect of the knee and stiffness are common with MCL injury.
Recovery depends on how severe the injury is. Protecting the range of motion, as well as a structured rehabilitation/strengthening programme forms the basis of conservative treatment for MCL injuries.
Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL)
The LCL connects the femur to the fibula and stabilises the outer side of the knee.
Injuries to the LCL are usually caused by an outward twisting force, or varus, to the knee. LCL injuries often occur alongside other knee injuries. Surgery is generally the preferred course of treatment if there is a complete (Grade 3) tear to the ligament or if the ligament becomes detached, or avulsed, from the bone. A structured rehabilitation programme is an essential part of recovery from an LCL injury.